maanantai 21. toukokuuta 2018

How to Build a Facebook Ad Funnel Using Customer Testimonials

Wondering how to create more effective Facebook campaigns? Have you considered including customer success stories in your Facebook ads? In this article, you’ll learn how to create a Facebook ad funnel using case studies and customer testimonials. Why Use Case Studies and Testimonials in Facebook Ads? In Facebook marketing, people often make the same mistake: [...]

This post How to Build a Facebook Ad Funnel Using Customer Testimonials first appeared on Social Media Examiner.


sunnuntai 20. toukokuuta 2018

How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography

One of the questions that a lot of photographers ask, is how much I should charge for my images? It is very hard to do, and hence a lot of artists struggle with it. There is so much more involved, and many don’t quite understand. So, how do you go about pricing your photography?

How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography

Flinders Street Station, this image took me about 3 years to get and I spent hours processing it. Hence it would have a high price on it.

Learn from the masters

There is a great story about Pablo Picasso, the famous artist. It goes like this.

Picasso was sitting in a Paris Café when an admirer approached and asked if he would do a quick sketch on a paper napkin. Picasso politely agreed, swiftly executed the work, and handed back the napkin – but not before asking a rather significant amount of money. The admirer was shocked and asked, “How can you ask for so much? It only took you a minute to draw this.” Picasso replied, “No, it took me 40 years.”

Whether this story is true or not is hard to know for sure, but it has a very good point. Most people do not consider the experience of the artist. Along with that are many other factors, like your education, the cost of equipment, and not to mention the time you spend creating the photo.

How much to charge, as you are going to see, is a complicated question and does depend on many of those factors. They are often things that people don’t really think about. Many photographers just pluck a price out of thin air and go with it. If I’m telling the truth, I have to say I was the same. I would constantly give different prices for my images.

Now I have a system in place and it is all based on the following.

How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography - yellow flowers

I do macro for fun, so this was shot in my garden one morning and processed quickly. The price wouldn’t be high for this image.


You have to take into consideration any education you have done to learn or improve your photography. It doesn’t have to be formal education, like a university degree, but if you have paid money for it, then you need to consider the cost.

Something like a Bachelor of Fine Arts will cost you thousands of dollars. You will never recover your money if you are only charging people $20 an image, for instance. How many will you have to sell to pay off the degree at that price?

What about other short courses you may have done? Ones that are just a few weeks long, or those that are done online. You need to think about how much they cost and the time you spend doing the classes and learning to do all those new skills. There are so many online courses, from learning how to use your camera, to how to edit your photos.

dock with blurry clouds - How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography

While I enjoy this kind of photography, it isn’t part of my main body of work. Therefore, it would never be editioned as it isn’t worth as much.


If you are anything like me, you have spent a great deal of money on your photography gear. Though you also need to think about what you have bought in the past and what you have now. For instance, how many cameras have you had? How many lenses have you had over time?

Consider all your accessories as well. Think about your camera bags, tripods, filters, memory cards, camera straps, etc. These are often forgotten, but they all add up and should be considered when pricing your photography work.

purple flower - How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography

This was taken with a good macro lens and an expensive camera so those factors should be taken into consideration when pricing the image.


Every time you go out to take photos, how much time do you spend in the field? Don’t think just about the length of time it takes to take a photo. You need to think about how far you traveled to get there and back. Did you have to drive around quite a bit?

When I go out shooting I can be gone all day. I might leave early in the morning and not get back until late that night. During that time, I may have traveled over 250 miles or 400 km, and used a tank of fuel. Not to mention having to buy two to three meals. It all adds up and if you are selling your images you need to consider these things as well.

Then what happens when you get home? The images are put onto your computer and then processed. It is going to be different for everyone, but you will likely spend anywhere from 15 minutes to several hours on each image. All this time should be considered when you are pricing your photography.

You should be giving yourself an hourly rate so you can add that up at the end to add to the price. While you may have gotten several images to sell in that one trip, you can divide it up and spread it out over the series.

How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography - dark moody image

This image is a combination of two and I spent many, many hours on it. I would ask for a high price for this one.


If you plan on selling your work as limited editions, then it will be worth more as you can only sell so many. When you do a limited run of an image they must all be identical and numbered, according to where in the edition they are, for example, 1/10, or 4/10, etc.

An edition is where you decide how many of that image you will sell. The number is up to you, 10, 20 or 100, maybe more if you think the image will be in high demand. However, the more there are in the edition the lower the value will be.

You have to be very organized to edition work and keep very good records. Once the edition is sold, you cannot sell anymore. There is some debate as to whether you can rework the image so that it looks different, but that is perhaps for another article.

dark image of a city skyline - How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography -

This image would be part of my body of work and would definitely be put into an edition, perhaps with a limited run of 10.


Most know that you have to include the cost of printing. If you are selling the image you need to make sure the print is a good quality. Printing it yourself with a cheap printer and ink is never a good idea. Most of those will fade with time and you will be selling someone a print that won’t last a lifetime or more.

Make sure that wherever you get the work printed that it is archival. There is nothing worse than buying a piece of art from someone and then in 10 years it is gone because it was printed badly.

When you are preparing your work for sale, make sure you get the cost of a professional printing job and include that in the price.

- How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography - lighthouse at night

An image that was done for fun. It would still be printed well, but the price would be lower than others.

Working for free

This may seem like a good idea, it gets your foot in the door, but the reality is that it rarely works. Once people know they can get images from you for free then they will continue to expect that. When you stop, they will just go to the next person. You should always charge for your images and your work.

You should also not sell your images for next to nothing. Think about how you are harming the industry by doing so. If it were any other industry and people were selling their services or products for much less than others it would be considered wrong, or cheap would mean not good. You need to consider every aspect when pricing your photography

sunset lighthouse - - How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography -

This is a bit of a throwaway image, taken during a time-lapse with a few hundred others. Still, it would never be given away for free.

Next time

So when someone asks you how much is your image worth, think about all the things that have been mentioned here. Of course, you are not going to charge thousands, but you want to get some of what you have spent back. Each time you sell one photo you have to work out how you can start to recoup the costs you have outlaid for your photography.

Please share your thoughts, if you have anything to add, on pricing your photography tips in the comments section below.

The post How Much is an Image Worth? Tips for Pricing Your Photography appeared first on Digital Photography School.

from Digital Photography School

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras

If you have been considering getting a new camera or have been considering upgrading a camera, you have probably heard all about crop sensor cameras but what does it mean? How does crop factor affect lens selections? When you are considering systems, often it is not just the camera bodies you must consider, but the selection of lenses for that system as well.

Sensor Optics and Equivalences

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - crop sensor optics

Crop Sensor Optics

Most new photographers often start out with crop sensor cameras because they are usually less expensive. But as you become more advanced does it make sense to upgrade to a full frame system? If you are thinking about upgrading is there a reasonable upgrade path?

For example, should you buy full frame lenses to use with your crop sensor body? It seems so confusing and to be fair, it is a little complicated and the simple rules of thumb don’t tell the whole story. Rather than look at the differences in camera sensors themselves (they are all pretty good), let’s try to make sense of the lenses themselves.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - different lenses

Similar focal length lenses – the Olympus micro 4/3rds 40-150mm f/2.8 (80-300mm equivalent) and Canon’s 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6 (for full frame).

Lens sizes

If you are looking at lenses you will see many different focal lengths and apertures. Even from the same manufacturer for the same camera body, there are often different aperture and focal length combinations. Since an important part of photography is optics, how can you begin to compare lenses for different size sensors? How do the lenses relate to the camera body you are looking at?

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - two lenses for comparison

Nifty 50mm (full frame on the left) and micro 4/3rds 25mm (50mm equivalent) on right.

Going further, how do different size crop sensors affect lens optics? Is an f/2.8 lens on a crop sensor camera actually f/2.8 lens or is it something else? What about bigger format cameras? Why do the smaller apertures (f-stops) seem so big but the images so gorgeous with great background separation and bokeh?

This all relates to lens optics and crop sensor equivalences, one of the great mysteries of photography that most photographers don’t really understand.

Lens Optics Basics

To understand lens optics you need to understand what a lens does to the light coming into it. The light coming through a lens actually inverts, flipping the image upside down. The light then projects onto the digital sensor after passing through the lens. 

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - diagram of lens focal length

Focal length and image flip onto the sensor.

Most lenses are defined by the focal length and maximum aperture. The higher the focal length, the closer distant objects seem. So, for example, sports and bird watchers typically want much larger focal lengths to get in close.

Lower numbers widen the field of view to make more things fit within the image (wide angle lenses) and are often the tools of the trade for landscape photographers. In 35mm equivalents, a 200mm lens is a long lens and a 20mm lens is a very wide lens.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - aperture diagram

Relative aperture size illustration.

The aperture f-stop number represents the size of the iris or hole in the lens. A lens will be rated based upon the largest aperture the iris can open. The more light you let in, the slower the shutter speed you will need. Because of this property, larger maximum aperture lenses are called faster lenses. For example, an f/2.8 lens is considered pretty fast and an f/5.6 lens (think kit lens) would be considered pretty slow.

Optical Math

Let’s keep the geeky math minimal, but it really helps understand lens optics. 

Focal length is not a measurement of the actual length of a lens, but a calculation of an optical distance from the point where light converges to form a sharp image on the digital sensor at the focal plane in the camera. Aperture, on the other hand, is the size of the hole created by the iris in the lens. Aperture is geometrically related to the focal length of the lens. For example, an f/2.8 lens on a 100 mm focal length lens is 100 divided by 2.8 = 35.7 mm. As the lens focal length dictates the size of the aperture, it is independent of the size of the sensor but dependent on the focal length.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - similar lenses

Utility lenses covering a similar range – the Canon 24-105mm f/4, and the Olympus 12-40mm Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras f/2.8 (24-80mm equivalent).

Zoom lenses may have more than one aperture because the iris doesn’t get bigger as the lens gets longer. Since it is a math relationship, the longer focal length with the same iris opening makes the aperture smaller. More expensive zoom lenses have the same aperture for the entire range but that is a bit of an engineering feat as the iris must get larger as the lens zooms to a longer focal length.

Camera Sensor Format Refresher

In the golden age of film photography, there were multiple formats dictated by film stock. One of the more common sizes was 35mm film dictated by sprocket film stock that was 34.98 ±0.03mm (1.377 ±0.001 inches) wide. Back in the film days, there were multiple formats too, with larger and smaller film stock available that also affected lens sizes and performance.

When digital sensors were originally developed for still cameras, larger sensors were prohibitively expensive, so smaller sensors were used. There is a wide range of sensor sizes and this variety of sensor sizes affects the mechanics of how lenses on cameras operate.

When a sensor is close to the size of 35mm film stock, it is called full frame. Anything smaller is called a crop sensor. Anything bigger is generally called medium format although there is a lot of variability in sizes larger than full frame. Sensors not only vary in size but also geometry.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - crop sensor sizes

Crop sensor relative sizes

Sensor sizes

Generally speaking, a full frame sensor is in the shape of a rectangle that is roughly 36mm x 24mm which is a length to width ratio of 3:2 covering an area of 862mm sq. Conversely, a micro 4/3rds crop sensor is 17.3mm x 13mm (ratio of 4:3) covering an area of 224.9mm sq. A Nikon/Pentax APS-C crop sensor is 23.6mm x 15.7mm (ratio of 3:2) covering an area of 370mm sq, whereas a Canon APS-C sensor is 22.2mm x 14.8mm (ratio of 3:2) but only 328.5mm sq. Larger formats (bigger than full frame) tend to be square.

Many times the crop factors are calculated by the size of the diagonal distance from corner to corner of the sensor.  For example, a full frame sensor is twice the diagonal as a micro 4/3rds sensor, therefore the crop ratio is 2x. For a Nikon APS-C crop sensor the ratio is 1.5x and for a Canon APS-C crop sensor, it is 1.6x.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - sensor footprints and sizes

Comparison of the sensor footprints

Square versus Round

Lenses are round whereas sensors are rectangular or square. So, all cameras cut off part of the image because the round lenses project a circular image on the sensor which is a rectangle. This means that the edges of the image circle are cut off.

Camera manufacturers design their lens/camera combinations so that the entire sensor gets great coverage from the image circle (this is called covering power). This can create problems when you have a mismatch between the sensor size and the size of the sensor for which the lens was made.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras -

Image circle with full frame and micro 4/3 frame overlaid

So, How Does Crop Factor Affect Images?

There are lots of factors that affect your images. The sensor size does affect images, but so does focal length and aperture size but those are physical properties of the lens and are not affected by the crop factor. At least not directly.

To illustrate the effect of crop sensors on light gathering and focal length, a series of test images were set up (these are not overly scientific but more illustrative). Using an Olympus EM1 Mark II (Micro 4/3rds sensor – 2 times crop factor) and a Canon 5D Mark IV (full frame).

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - Olympus camera

Olympus EM1 Mark II, micro 4/3rds camera

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - Canon camera

Canon 5D Mark IV full frame camera.

To illustrate the focal difference conversion and the light gathering conversion, the cameras were set up side by side using only the focal length conversion. The geometry of the sensors is not exactly the same so they have been cropped to match each other (8×10 ratio).

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - two cameras shooting the same scene

Camera size comparison (full frame on the left, micro 4/3 on the right)

Both cameras were targeted at the same vista.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - side by side cameras

Test setup side by side cameras.

Rules of Thumb Versus Reality

Focal lengths are commonly converted into equivalents for full frame sensors to give the same the field of view by multiplying the focal length by the sensor’s diagonal ratio. For example, a 25mm lens on a micro 4/3rd sensor is the equivalent of a 50mm lens on a full frame camera (crop factor is 2:1).

A Canon EFS (crop sensor) lens to match a 50mm lens is 31mm. This works in reverse too. If you put a full frame lens on a crop sensor camera body, the focal length is multiplied (the same 50mm lens becomes like a 75mm lens on a crop sensor). This rule of thumb works.

Editor’s note: The optics are not the same, but this is a generally accepted method of understanding crop sensors.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - two photos of a bridge

At 24mm equivalents – same shutter speed and ISO, full frame on left and Micro 4/3 on the right (both at f/4, ISO200, 1/160th).

Aperture and Depth of Field

Another rule of thumb that doesn’t work so great is to add a stop or two for the aperture (depending upon the crop). Why doesn’t it work? Well, there is more at play here.

The aperture affects the light gathering ability of a lens but with a crop sensor camera, the smaller sensor causes the depth of field (area in focus) to be larger.  What that means is that an f/2.8 lens at 200 ISO sensitivity should have very close to the same shutter speed on any camera body (there are variations in light meters from one camera body to another). So an f/2.8 lens is always an f/2.8 for light gathering.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras - two bridge photos side by side

At 70mm equivalents – same shutter speed and ISO, full frame on the left and Micro 4/3 on the right (both at f/4, ISO200, 1/80th).

To make things more complex is the look of an image. The bokeh on a crop sensor will never be quite as good as a full-frame sensor because the extra area of a full frame sensor changes the depth of field (the amount of the image in focus) relative to a crop sensor. This is not a function of the lens as much as the sensor size. This can be pretty subtle but it is a factor, particularly for portraits.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras

At 200mm equivalents – same shutter speed and ISO, full frame on the left and Micro 4/3 on right (f/4, ISO 200, 1/30th).

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras

At 200mm equivalents – same shutter speed and ISO, full frame on the left and Micro 4/3 on right (f/4, ISO 200, 1/40th).

Full Frame Lenses on Crop Sensor Cameras

Lenses tend to last much longer than cameras with good lenses lasting as long as two or three camera body iterations. So many people go by the adage of investing in glass. So if you are using a crop sensor body that will accept full frame lenses, why not buy full frame lenses until you are ready to buy the full frame body? The answer is not necessarily because it may not be as sharp as your crop lenses even if the lens seems nominally the same size.

Full frame lenses are more expensive than crop lenses but you are often paying for other features including weather sealing and better more durable construction. Because of large differences in sensor sizes, getting full frame lenses on a crop sensor means you are only using the very center portion of the lens but the detail is more concentrated on that area. This can challenge the optical quality of the full frame lenses.

They are often better quality but not enough better to account for the size differences between the sensors. So unless you know you are upgrading your camera imminently, you may not want to use the full frame lenses on crop bodies.

Another consideration is that you have to use the crop factor in reverse.  On a Canon crop body (1.6 crop factor) a 24mm lens becomes a 38.4mm lens. This means that you can’t get as wide of an angle of view on a crop body with wide lenses.

Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras

A full frame lens on a crop body will increase the focal length by the crop factor


There are lots of misconceptions regarding lenses when comparing them across sensor sizes. Understanding the basic function, light gathering capabilities, and geometric relationships can help you compare lenses within camera systems and across sensor sizes.

There are great lenses available for all camera systems that can produce fantastic results. Lenses are as important at the camera body. So when choosing a system, make sure you have the lens selection you need for your particular style of photography.

The post Making Sense of Lens Optics for Crop Sensor Cameras appeared first on Digital Photography School.

from Digital Photography School

lauantai 19. toukokuuta 2018

12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

Starting a photography blog was one of the best decisions I have ever made. I never would’ve guessed when I pulled the trigger on my first blog post how much good would come from it.

Hiking trails in the hills of Castlepoint

I talked briefly about starting a blog in this article, 10 Photography Lessons I’ve Learned Over 10 Years, and I decided it would be worth going deeper. The benefits of sharing your photos on your own blog are many, and I’m going to talk about 12 of them here.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but hopefully, it will inspire you to start a photography blog of your own.

1. Having a photography blog will help you grow

It’s easy to get stale in your photography sometimes. You tend to shoot the same things the same way and post-process using the same presets.

A blog can help inspire you to get out of that stale rut and grow as a photographer because you will naturally want to share something new and exciting. Knowing that people are viewing your photography blog is a great motivator to post a better photo today than you did last week.

Lighthouse on the California Coast - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

2. You’ll build your own platform

Your blog is yours to do what you want with, and that means you’re building something that is 100% your own. If you only ever post your photos to social media then you’re dependent on those services, and your photography is not their priority.

Building a photography blog that is all about you and your photos will be there as long as you want it to, and it can become a platform that grows over time.

3. Display your photos your way

All blogging services will come with some form of customization, which means you can show off your photography however you want. You can use anything from simple, free themes that look great right out of the box to paid premium themes that give you more features and options.

If you really want full control over how it looks and feels, get a self-hosted blog on your own domain. They’re cheap and easy to set up, and you will own your blog forever. You can even have it double as your photography portfolio website.

Thunderstorm off the coast of Cuba - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

4. Share more of your photography

Your photography blog can be a great place to share your images that might not be your best work. There are a number of reasons you might want to do this.

You might want to share a collection of photos of a location or subject. You could share your before-and-after photos to illustrate a new post-processing technique. There are many reasons why you might want to share some photos that aren’t good enough for your main photography portfolio, and a blog is a great place to do that.

5. You’ll become a better storyteller

Learning to tell stories with your photos is one of the best ways to improve your photography. A good storyteller will capture people’s interest and emotions. Blogging will help you to become a better storyteller because the images you share come with a story.

The great part about a photography blog is that you can write as much as you want, and it adds to the story of the photo. The process of telling the story about the photo will develop your creative muscles and you will naturally get better at storytelling with your photography.

Friends riding bikes in Tulum - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

6. People will get to know you better

I like to think of my own blog as not only somewhere to teach travel photography, but where people can get to know me as a real human. I love to write travel stories on my blog, sharing not just my photos, but the stories and experiences that go along with them.

People who find and read your photography blog will see more of who you are than they will on Instagram or Facebook. It can be a place to let people get to know the person behind the camera.

7. You’ll see your growth over time

There’s nothing quite as confronting as looking back through old photos and reading old posts on your blog. It can make you cringe sometimes, but that’s a good thing.

Your blog can be a place where you document your photography journey. You will be able to see your growth over time, which can be incredibly encouraging, especially on those days when you feel like your photography sucks (we all have those days).

hiking trail in the mountains - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

8. It helps you critically analyze your photos

As you grow as a photographer you get better at looking at your photos more critically and curating them. A photography blog can help a lot with this as well. The process of writing a post about a photo will help you to analyze it better because you spend more time thinking about the whys, hows, whats, and ifs of the photo.

Why did I take that photo? How could I have improved it? What story does it tell? If I used a different lens, how would it have changed it? You’ll be surprised how many more questions you’ll find yourself asking as you write.

9. It can open up new opportunities

Sharing your photos is really putting yourself out there, which can be scary. One of the advantages of that is that it makes it easier for people to find you. Google loves blogs, so you’re far more likely to show up if somebody searches for something you’ve shared on your blog than if you’d just shared it on social media.

Over time, the more you share on your photography blog, the more likely you are to show up in searches. More visibility means greater potential to be discovered by photo buyers or other sites.

sunset reflection in rock pools - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

10. Writing exercises your creativity

You may not think of it this way, but writing can be an incredibly creative outlet. Your previous classroom experiences may be contrary to this, but it’s true.

Creative writing exercises similar parts of the brain as photography, so it makes sense that they strengthen each other. You may not think that sitting down and tapping away at a computer can help your photography, but it can. A blog is a great place to exercise your creative muscles regularly.

11. You will inspire others

I’ve lost count of how many emails or comments I’ve had from people who have read my blog and felt encouraged or inspired. This relates to my previous point about people getting to know you better.

When people read your blog and begin to get to know you it shows them that you’re just another human with a camera who’s on a journey too. A photo blog makes you more relatable, and people are more likely to be inspired by you if they feel they can relate to you.

silhouette of a tree and the night sky - 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog

12. Blogging itself can become another hobby

If you’re anything like me, you probably don’t need another hobby, but hear me out. Blogging just may not be for you. That’s fine.

On the other hand, you might absolutely love it and it may grow from an outlet for sharing your photography, into something that you do for pleasure. You won’t know unless you try.

What are you waiting for?

These are only 12 of dozens of reasons to start a photography blog. I strongly encourage you to give it a go. If you’re one of the many photographers who has a blog but has let it slip, why don’t you to pick it up again? Maybe you’ve been on the fence about it and this article will give you a push.

There are countless blogging platforms to choose from, but I strongly recommend WordPress. I also recommend the free Start a Blog course over at Problogger (another site by dPS creator Darren Rowse).

Do you have a photography blog already? What benefits have come from it? Still on the fence? I would love to hear your experiences or questions in the comments area below.

The post 12 Good Reasons Why You Should Start a Photography Blog appeared first on Digital Photography School.

from Digital Photography School